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Simultaneous in vivo recordings, workloops, and high-speed video (250 fps) of a Black-billed magpie. The top trace is pectoralis muscle length, the bottom trace is muscle force. Workloops are plotted as muscle force over muscle length. Colors indicate wingstrokes as defined by a pectoralis shortening-lengthening cycle.
A European Starling with markers on its wing and body flies vertically through a calibrated volume filmed by four synchronized high-speed cameras (filming at 250 frames per second). The motion can then be accurately captured and measured in 3D space.
(From Brandon Jackson's dissertation)
(QT: 1.2 MB)
Lateral view of a zebra finch using intermittent flight (flap-bounding) in a wind tunnel with incurrent air at 8 meters per second
A magpie flying in the Flight Lab's windtunnel at two different speeds wearing custom respirometry masks. (From M.W. Bundle's dissertation)
(QT: 11 MB; WM: 4.2 MB)
A phylogenetic series of birds performing WAIR covering one of the most basal clades (Tinamous) to the most derived (Passerines). Shown are Elegant Crested Tinamou, Brush Turkey, Chukar, Pigeon, Black-billed Magpie, and Hermit Thrush. Every species examined to date (more than 20) perform this apparently basal behavior (from Dial et al, 2008). (QT:8.8 MB; WM:6.9 MB)
A single wingbeat comparison of a wingbeat in slow, level flight and WAIR up an 80 degree incline. There are significant differences relative to the body, but the wingbeats are very similar with respect to gravity (from Dial et al, 2008).
After young chukars ascend an obstacle, they must descend, which they do readily from day one by launching themselves off a precipice, beating their wings on the way down. Older birds seem to have more control over the descent (from Dial et al. 2008).